1. Home
  2. Docs
  3. Results Guide
  4. Terminology

Terminology

Here you’ll find all the used terms and what they mean. It’s also explained where in the analysis they are used to give you a better overview.

Valence

The Valence score is a summary measure across all emotions. It gives you a quick idea if the expressed emotions were positive or negative. That’s why it ranges from -100% to +100%. After you see the Valence score, you know if testers reacted good or bad. You can then go into the emotions to see which emotions have caused this Valence score. For example, 100% happy would cause +100% Valence. Whereas, 100% Sad/Skeptical, would cause -100% Valence. Often multiple emotions are present and Valence captures the emotional tendency across all of them.

Valence is shown in:

Summary Overview Page, Area of Interest Overview, Quadrant Results, Valence Graphs, Valence Map

Emotional Impact

We measure the 7 basic emotions

But these emotions are not expressed all the time. The face can also remain neutral. That’s why it is important to know how much emotion was expressed at all. That is what the Emotional Impact captures. It represents how much emotion was expressed. If the face remained neutral for 100% of the time, the Emotional Impact is 0%.

Emotional Impact is shown in:

Summary Overview Page, Area of Interest Overview

Heart Rate change in %

Everyone’s baseline heart rate is different. Because of that, we can’t just take the average of the regular BPM heart rate. We need to know first the baseline heart rate and then identify the change in heart rate in % for every tester. Only then can we take an average, because only then have we accounted for the different variability. It is a necessary normalization step. The % shown is then the difference from the baseline heart rate that we acquire shortly before the stimulus is shown. It can occur that your stimulus has a calming effect, then the % is going below 0. If it has an exciting effect, the % of Heart Rate will increase.

Heart Rate change in % is shown in:

Summary Overview Page, Area of Interest Overview, Quadrant Results, Heart Rate Graphs

Fixations

We move our eyes every day about 150000 times! There are many different types of eye movement. One of them are fixations. Fixations are eye movements where our eye actually stops moving for the most part. Only during fixations does our brain receive input from the eyes and we actually see something. In the video you can see where on the image we look and when a fixation happens. On the left side you see what information our brain actually gets as input. The rest of the image and of our entire visual perception is constructed by our brain. That’s why it is so important to do eye tracking so we know what people see but more importantly what they don’t see.

Eye Movement Score

Testers can look at an image in many different ways. They can look at many different points but each point is looked at very briefly or they can look at few points but those points captured a lot of attention.

The first one is superficial viewing and the second one is focused viewing. That is what the Eye Movement Score captures. It ranges from 0, most superficial viewing, to 1, most focused viewing. If you for example have a landing page that shows a lot of products, you want a lot of scanning, which is superficial viewing. That will result in a low Eye Movement Score. If you have text that you want people to read carefully, then it requires a lot of attention and you would get a high Eye Movement Score.

Eye Movement Score is shown in:

Area of Interest Overview

Attention Index

The Attention Index is computed based on the eye tracking heatmap. It finds the maximum of attention received in a specific area. That is why it is only shown in the Area of Interest Overview. It provides a general idea how much attention an area has received across all testers.

Attention Index is shown in:

Area of Interest Overview

Seen by

This is only shown in the Area of Interest Overview because the overall stimulus is always seen by 100% of the testers. But some testers might not see the same things other testers see. That’s why it’s important to know how many people actually saw a specific area. If you for example create an online banner and it is designed to increase brand awareness, it is important to know how many people actually saw your logo.

If you have a webshop, you want to make sure that the Call to Action (CTA) button is clearly seen by as many people as possible.

The percentage tells you how many testers actually saw the defined area in your Area of Interest (AOI) analysis.

Seen by, is shown in:

Area of Interest Overview

ATTFF – Average Time to First Fixation

We only really see something during a fixation. Because of that, it is important to know when an area gets their first fixation. The earlier the better, because it means that that area has successfully attracted attention. If you define multiple areas in your Area of Interest analysis, you can then also identify the attention hierarchy.

In a webshop, the product, the description, and the CTA are very important. Each of these should get a low ATTFF compared to the websites logo, for example. But their order is also important and the more streamlined the attention order you create, the more successful your webshop!

ATTFF is shown in:

Area of Interest Overview

AFT – Average Fixation Time

Your fixations can be short or they can be long. Short fixation times indicate that a specified area did attract attention, but it couldn’t keep it there. On the other hand, long fixation times kept attention for longer. One is not necessarily better than the other one. It highly depends what you are trying to achieve. The Fixation Time is also reflected in the Eye Movement Score, for example, if the fixation time is long, the Eye Movement Score will be closer to 1, whereas when the time is short, the Eye Movement Score will be closer to 0.

The AFT tells you the exact time but for benchmarking the Eye Movement Score makes it easy to see what it actually means.

AFT is shown in:

Area of Interest Overview

AOI Duration

The AOI Duration stands for Area of Interest Duration. This number will always be the same as the duration you present the stimulus for, if the stimulus is an image or a website prototype. That’s because the defined area will always be visible throughout the entire image presentation time. This number is only different across defined areas in a video Area of Interest analysis.

In a video, a car can be visible for 5 seconds, while your logo might be present for only 2 seconds. Only in this scenario does the AOI duration differ from the stimulus presentation time.

AOI Duration is shown in:

Area of Interest Overview